The Book of Ezekiel describes itself as the words of the Ezekiel ben-Buzi, a priest living in exile in the city of Babylon between and BC. Most scholars today accept the basic authenticity of the book, but see in it significant additions by a "school" of later followers of the original prophet.
While the book exhibits considerable unity and probably reflects much of the historic Ezekiel, it is the product of a long and complex history and does not necessarily preserve the very words of the prophet. According to the book that bears his name, Ezekiel ben-Buzi was born into a priestly family of Jerusalem c. Prior to this time, Judah had been a vassal of the Assyrian empire, but the rapid decline of Assyria after c. Josiah was killed in and Judah became a vassal of the new regional power, the Neo-Babylonian empire.
In , following a rebellion against Babylon, Ezekiel was among the large group of Judeans taken into captivity by the Babylonians. He appears to have spent the rest of his life in Mesopotamia. A further deportation of Jews from Jerusalem to Babylon occurred in when a second unsuccessful rebellion resulted in the destruction of the city and its Temple and the exile of the remaining elements of the royal court, including the last scribes and priests.
The various dates given in the book suggest that Ezekiel was 25 when he went into exile, 30 when he received his prophetic call, and 52 at the time of the last vision c. The Jewish scriptures were translated into Greek in the two centuries prior to the Common Era. The Greek version of these books is called the Septuagint.
The Jewish Bible in Hebrew is called the Masoretic text meaning passing down after a Hebrew word Masorah ; for Jewish scholars and rabbis curated and commented on the text. The Greek Septuagint version of Ezekiel differs considerably from the Hebrew Masoretic version — it is shorter and possibly represents an early interpretation of the book we have today according to the masoretic tradition — while other ancient manuscript fragments differ from both. The first half of the 20th century saw several attempts to deny the authorship and authenticity of the book, with scholars such as C.
The pendulum swung back in the post-war period , with an increasing acceptance of the book's essential unity and historical placement in the Exile. The most influential modern scholarly work on Ezekiel, Walther Zimmerli 's two-volume commentary, appeared in German in and in English in and Zimmerli traces the process by which Ezekiel's oracles were delivered orally and transformed into a written text by the prophet and his followers through a process of ongoing re-writing and re-interpretation. He isolates the oracles and speeches behind the present text, and traces Ezekiel's interaction with a mass of mythological, legendary and literary material as he developed his insights into Yahweh's purposes during the period of destruction and exile.
Dr. J. Vernon McGee :: Outline for Ezekiel
Ezekiel depicts the destruction of Jerusalem as a purificatory sacrifice upon the altar, made necessary by the "abominations" in the Temple the presence of idols and the worship of the god Tammuz described in chapter 8. Previous prophets had used "Israel" to mean the northern kingdom and its tribes; when Ezekiel speaks of Israel he is addressing the deported remnant of Judah; at the same time, however, he can use this term to mean the glorious future destiny of a truly comprehensive "Israel". The theology of Ezekiel is notable for its contribution to the emerging notion of individual responsibility to God — each man would be held responsible only for his own sins.
This is in marked contrast to the Deuteronomistic writers, who held that the sins of the nation would be held against all, without regard for an individual's personal guilt. Nonetheless, Ezekiel shared many ideas in common with the Deuteronomists, notably the notion that God works according to the principle of retributive justice and an ambivalence towards kingship although the Deuteronomists reserved their scorn for individual kings rather than for the office itself.
As a priest, Ezekiel praises the Zadokites over the Levites lower level temple functionaries , whom he largely blames for the destruction and exile. He is clearly connected with the Holiness Code and its vision of a future dependent on keeping the Laws of God and maintaining ritual purity.
Notably, Ezekiel blames the Babylonian exile not on the people's failure to keep the Law, but on their worship of gods other than Yahweh and their injustice: these, says Ezekiel in chapters 8—11, are the reasons God's Shekhinah left his city and his people. Ezekiel's imagery provided much of the basis for the Second Temple mystical tradition in which the visionary ascended through the Seven Heavens in order to experience the presence of God and understand his actions and intentions.
He is specifically mentioned by Ben Sirah a writer of the Hellenistic period who listed the "great sages" of Israel and 4 Maccabees 1st century AD. In the 1st century AD the historian Josephus said that the prophet wrote two books: he may have had in mind the Apocryphon of Ezekiel , a 1st-century BC text that expands on the doctrine of resurrection. Ezekiel appears only briefly in the Dead Sea Scrolls , but his influence there was profound, most notably in the Temple Scroll with its temple plans, and the defence of the Zadokite priesthood in the Damascus Document.
Ezekiel is referenced more in the Book of Revelation than in any other New Testament writing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ezekiel disambiguation. Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy.
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Read more: The Prophet Ezekiel. It compares their perspectives to those of a city dweller and a village dweller who both saw the king. His focus is on the king himself.
On the other hand, when a village dweller sees the entourage, since he rarely experiences such displays, every detail is exciting. The purpose of Creation is to recognize how everything in the material world is a reflection of what exists in the higher realms. Read more: Seeing the Divine in the Physical. Ezekiel See Radak ad loc. Some identify the last grain in the list as emmer wheat see Tzimchei Hamikra , pp. According to many of the commentaries Rashi, Radak citing his father, Metzudat David, Malbim , the two branches actually fused together miraculously.
Ezekiel — In a striking display, the last sentence quoted here is inscribed at the exit from Yad Vashem, on a veranda overlooking the Judean hills. Maaseh Hakorbanot — I want some clear notes about prophets in Israel Reply. From your point of view is Gd telling people to eat human flesh in Ezekiel 39 ? That verse is directed to "the birds of feather and beasts of the field," as stated in What about the quote in pulp fiction? So how did he die? Please Reply. Chief of the Chaldeans killed him How did the Prophet die?
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The prophet's visions after the fall of Jerusalem led to the creation of a new Jewish identity.
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See note 5. II Kings — Rashi, Ezekiel Talmud, Moed Katan 25a; Rashi, Ezekiel Talmud, Bava Batra 15a. The presence of this amendment to the Tyre prophecies alongside the untouched — and by then confuted — original prophecies attests to the in-violate status of Ezekiel's oracles in his own and subsequent age's estimation.
It is a warning against the easy assumption of later tampering with the prophet's words. The standpoint of the prophecies against the nations is one of sensitivity to the diminution suffered by God owing to Israel's humiliation. Israel's fall gave occasion to its neighbors to gloat and aggrandize themselves. Heathen arrogance reached its limit; God must now act to assert his authority on earth.
This necessarily entails the restoration of Israel, which is indeed anticipated several times in this section ; ; , The interconnection of the doom of the nations and Israel's restoration is seen also in the sequence of chapters 35—36, on which see below. Verses 1— The kernel of this piece is the despairing cry of the people: How can we live, immersed as we are in sin vs. It stimulates a clarification of the constructive aspect of the doom prophecy — the prophet's role as a lookout, warning his hearers of the consequence of their sin and urging them to repent and live.
Previously isolated elements b—19; ; ff. As in 18, a legal-casuistic style is the vehicle of doctrinal statement. Verses 21ff. Verses 23—33, in form a single prophecy, comprise two heterogeneous pieces. Verses 23—29 are a scornful rejection of claims on the part of those dwelling in the land of Israel after the fall to retain title to the land despite their fewness a later, pathetic version of b.
Verses 30—33 promise the prophet that, although he is now no more than an entertainer to the people who flock to hear him, the imminent advent of doom will make them take his words seriously. Why this pre-fall piece is placed here is unclear. All of chapter 33 belongs to the doom prophecy, but it reflects a situation just before and after the fall — later than that of chapter It is dated later than the first dated foreign-nation prophecies which themselves straddle the fall.